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Case studies for sleep and breathing disorders

Normal sleep

Disturbed sleep

Normal sleep pattern:
Short time to fall asleep (less than 10 minutes).
Normal sleep time (7-8 hours)
5 dream (REM) phases (marked in red)

Disturbed sleep structure:
Long time to fall asleep, early awakening
Short sleep time, less than 6 hours,
Only 2 dream (REM) phases (marked in red)

Most common causes of disturbed sleep:
1. disturbance of the internal clock
2. snoring and sleep apnea
3. depression and chronic pain
4. chronic diseases and burn-out syndromes

Normal breathing

Disturbed breathing

Normal breathing:
Stable breathing rhythm
Normal and stable oxygen in the blood
Stable sleep without waking reactions
Relaxed, recovered muscles

Disturbed breathing:
Unstable respiratory rhythm (3 respiratory arrests, each>40 sec).
Decrease of oxygen with each respiratory arrest
Disturbed sleep due to short awakenings (60/hr)
Tense, unrecovered muscles

Most common causes of disordered breathing:
1. overweight
2. small upper and lower jaw, narrow nasal passages (especially in normal weight)
3. enlarged pharyngeal and palatal polyps (especially in children)

Contact — American Sleep Clinic

Zentrum für Schlafmedizin / American Sleep Clinic Frankfurt am Main

American Sleep Clinic

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